sunset from behind the wire

sunset from behind the wire

Monday, May 11, 2015

Is Life Possible on Enceladus?

When we look up at a star filled night sky, the inevitable question turns to life beyond Earth. Whether you consider creation or evolution, the question is still asked. This post is principally for Old NFO and his Sci Fi story. I'm not sure that it's particularly useful, but you never know.

New work from a team including Carnegie’s Christopher Glein has revealed the pH of water spewing from a geyser-like plume on Saturn’s moon Enceladus. Their findings are an important step toward determining whether life could exist, or could have previously existed, on the sixth planet’s sixth-largest moon.

Enceladus is geologically active and thought to have a liquid water ocean beneath its icy surface. The hidden ocean is the presumed source of the plume of water vapor and ice that the Cassini spacecraft has observed venting from the moon’s south polar region. Whenever there’s the possibility of liquid water on another planetary body, scientists begin to ask whether or not it could support life.

A diagram illustrating the possible interior of Saturn's
moon Enceladus, including the ocean and plumes in
the south polar region, was based on Cassini
spacecraft, courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.
The present team, including lead author Glein, John Baross of the University of Washington, and J. Hunter Waite Jr. of the Southwest Research Institute, developed a new chemical model based on mass spectrometry data of ice grains and gases in Enceladus’ plume gathered by Cassini, in order to determine the pH of Enceladus’ ocean. The pH tells us how acidic or basic the water is. It is a fundamental parameter to understanding geochemical processes occurring inside the moon that are considered important in determining Enceladus’ potential for acquiring and hosting life. 
Christopher R. Glein, John A. Baross, J. Hunter Waite. The pH of Enceladus’ ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2015.04.017
The team’s model, constrained by observational data from two Cassini teams, including one led by coauthor Waite, shows that the plume, and by inference the ocean, is salty with an alkaline pH of about 11 or 12, which is similar to that of glass-cleaning solutions of ammonia. It contains the same sodium chloride (NaCl) salt as our oceans here on Earth. Its additional substantial sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) makes the ocean more similar to our planet’s soda lakes such as Mono Lake in California or Lake Magadi in Kenya. The scientists refer to it as a “soda ocean.”

The model suggests that the ocean’s high pH is caused by a metamorphic, underwater geochemical process called serpentinization. On Earth, serpentinization occurs when certain kinds of so-called “ultrabasic” or “ultramafic” rocks (low in silica and high in magnesium and iron) are brought up to the ocean floor from the upper mantle and chemically interact with the surrounding water molecules. Through this process, the ultrabasic rocks are converted into new minerals, including the mineral serpentine, after which the process is named, and the fluid becomes alkaline. On Enceladus, serpentinization would occur when ocean water circulates through a rocky core at the bottom of its ocean.

“Why is serpentinization of such great interest? Because the reaction between the metallic rocks and the ocean water also produces molecular hydrogen (H2), which provides a source of chemical energy that is essential for supporting a deep biosphere in the absence of sunlight inside moons and planets,” Glein said. “This process is central to the emerging science of astrobiology, because molecular hydrogen can both drive the formation of organic compounds like amino acids that may lead to the origin of life, and serve as food for microbial life such as methane-producing organisms. As such, serpentinization provides a link between geological processes and biological processes. The discovery of serpentinization makes Enceladus an even more promising candidate for a separate genesis of life.”

Even beyond the search for life-hosting conditions on other planetary bodies, the team’s work demonstrates that it is possible to determine the pH of an extraterrestrial ocean based on chemical data from a spacecraft flying through a plume.

To answer SOME of the daunting questions, we may have to wait for Old NFO's new science fiction book.

Drawing Uncle Mo

You should draw Mo wherever you go. Some people don't have a talent for art. Try this simple suggestion:

If you draw a picture of Hillary, add a beard and a turban, you have Mohammed. It's easy. You can even transform a campaign picture of your favorite female candidate into Mohammed. Bring a red sharpie for the eyes (right).

Is it politically correct to "magically" transform Hillary into the Prophet of Islam? I say that it is. Do you think that we should hold THOSE competitions? I think that they'd be interesting. Clearly more interesting than freehand sketches. Somebody call Pam Geller and tell her that you heard it here first.

Take Mo with you to the abortion
I know that it's not very progressive to believe that Muslims don't have the right to murder non-Muslims who refuse to submit to sharia and islamic law, but come on. Don't you think that they're just a little thin skinned?
Muslims don't find it wrong for adult men to “marry” (rape) prepubescent little girls, but they feel compelled to murder anyone who draws a cartoon of the Prophet Mohammed, though I don't know if this applies to Hillary morphs. I haven't heard an Imam's opinion on the matter.

Americans are working to show their support for the Draw Hillary/Mo program by posting these pictures at different sites. Hillary is provocative, so was Mohammed. Has anyone ever seen both of them at the same party? Maybe THAT is why Bill prefers to seek the company of people other than Hillary? 

Is there a hygiene difference between Mohammed and Hillary? I really don't know. The time I met her when she was SECSTATE, it looked like her hair hadn't been washed in a few days and her breath smelled like an old tent. The camel odor that some people associate with the ancient prophet was missing.